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Cornea - clear window at the front of the eye
Iris - colored part of the eye that constricts with light
Lens - focuses light onto the back of the eye (on the retina). Cataracts may form in this location.
Retina (yellow layer in model above) - rods, cones and nerve layer of the eye that converts light into an signal that is transmitted to the brain for vision
Tapetum - the upper reflective part of the retina that reflects light back through the retina ("eye-shine" at night like a deer caught in headlights). People and some primates do not have this area of the eye.
Non-tapetum - the lower pigmented area of the retina
Choroid (pink layer in model above) - blood vessels that supply nutrients to the eye and reflective cells that give the tapetum color
Optic nerve - carries visual information to the brain